Knowledge Center
Knowledge Center
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<h2>I just want a good battery – how do I choose? </h2>
<p>In order to make an informed battery buying decision, you need to understand some fundamental differences in the way batteries are constructed. These differences result in performance advantages that will be more or less important to you. The parameters may be cleanliness, ease of use, run time, initial cost, environmental factors, hazardous gases causing explosion hazards, and other criteria. 
<p>Wet batteries consist of lead plates mounted in a liquid sulfuric acid solution. Due to their internal chemical reactions and heating during charging, they inherently lose water that must be replaced through regular maintenance, or damage to the batteries will occur. 
<p>Gel and AGM batteries belong to a family of batteries called VRLA, or Valve Regulated Lead Acid. They are sealed and do not lose water during charging, and therefore are referred to as being “maintenance free.” Although wet and VRLA batteries are similar in key design fundamentals (a lead surface and a sulfuric acid electrolyte), they differ in construction and application. 
<h2>Wet / Flooded Batteries</h2>
 <li>They have the lowest cost for a given runtime/amp hour</li>
 <li>They tend to have the longest life span if properly maintained and not abused.</li>
 <li>Most use Lead-Antimony plates, which have improved plate strength, an important feature for electrical vehicles that are subject to abrupt stops and starts, bumps, and vibration.</li>
 <li>They can tolerate frequent charge/discharge cycles</li>
 <li>Lead-Antimony plates, although stronger than the Lead-Calcium plates used in VRLA batteries, inherently have a much higher self-discharge rate. This means that wet batteries cannot be stored for any length of time without supplemental charging to make sure the plates do not sit in a discharged state, which will allow sulfation, battery degradation, and premature battery failure. 
 <li>Care must be taken while handling wet batteries so as not to expose personnel, other equipment, or delicate surfaces to sulfuric acid that may spill when the fill ports are uncapped or if the battery tips. </li>
 <li>During the charge process, an explosive mixture of oxygen and hydrogen is produced that may accumulate in pockets outside the battery, so wet batteries need to be properly ventilated and are subject to shipping restrictions.</li>
 <li>They must be kept in an upright position to prevent leaking and spilling</li>
 <li>There are associated costs and inconveniences related to the required regular servicing needs of wet batteries, such as damaged and/or special clothing, hazardous material handling and transport requirements, shipping restrictions, damage to service areas from acid, and other personnel-related costs that should be considered when choosing a battery.  However, by far the biggest cost is incurred by not maintaining the batteries. </li>
 <li>Freezing – A fully discharged wet lead acid battery will freeze at temperatures close to -10°F.  The expansion of the electrolyte can damage the plates, separators or even crack the battery case.  If freezing should occur, you must let your battery thaw, physically inspect the case for leakage, fully recharge it in a well ventilated area, remove the surface charge, and load test the battery and charging system to determine if there is any latent or permanent damage. </li>
<h2>Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) Batteries</h2>
<li>Encompass both gelled electrolyte (gel) and absorbed glass mat (AGM) batteries. </li>
<li>Battery housing is sealed with pressure relief valves that typically cannot be modified or removed.</li>
<li>No maintenance – you do not add water to the cells.</li>
<li>According to industry experts, the shelf life of a VRLA battery is seven times higher than the shelf life of a comparable wet battery. </li>
<p>To avoid damaging your batteries, do not mix wet and VRLA batteries on the same machine! </p>
<p>Overcharging is especially harmful to VRLA batteries because it dries out the electrolyte by driving the oxygen and hydrogen out of the battery through the pressure relief valves, where it cannot be recovered. A battery can be overcharged even though it is not fully “charged”. That is why using the proper charger and charger algorithm is critical for battery performance. 
<p>Battery manufacturers consider the battery warranty void if improperly charged.</p>
<h2>Gelled Electrolyte Batteries </h2>
<p>Gelled batteries contain sulfuric acid that has been gelled by the addition of Silica gel, turning the acid into a solid mass the consistency of petroleum jelly that coats the lead plates. 
 <li>Gelled batteries are sealed, have special pressure relief valves and should never be opened.</li>
 <li>Since they require no maintenance, they don't have the costs and inconvenience of regular servicing associated with wet batteries. </li>
 <li>It is impossible to spill acid even if the battery case is broken; therefore it can be operated in virtually any position other than upside down.</li>
 <li>They are very safe at sea - no chlorine gas can form due to sulfuric acid and salt water mixing.</li>
 <li>Gelled batteries can be stored at sub-freezing temperatures as low as -25° to -35°F, as long as they are fully charged prior to storage.</li>
 <li>Gelled batteries use a recombination reaction to prevent the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gases that are normally lost in wet batteries under normal operating conditions.  However, the batteries should still be ventilated.</li>
 <li>Because of their “acid-starved” design, gelled batteries are better suited for deep-discharge applications that would otherwise damage the plates of wet or some standard AGM batteries (not the Discover AGM batteries offered by Nilfisk-Advance).</li>
 <li>According to industry experts, the chance of explosions for gel batteries is as little as 1 in 1,000,000 compared with 1 in 1,000 for wet acid batteries.</li>
 <li>Gel batteries must be charged at a slower rate to prevent excess gas from escaping and damaging the cells.</li>
 <li>They must be charged at lower voltages than flooded or AGM.  If overcharged, voids can develop in the gel which will never heal, causing a loss in battery capacity. </li>
 <li>Although gel batteries are sealed, there is some water loss. In hot climates, water loss can be enough over 2-4 years to cause premature battery failure.</li>
 <li>Their initial cost is higher than wet batteries for a similar amp hour capacity</li>
 <li>They are heavier than comparable wet batteries. </li>
<h2>AGM Batteries </h2>
<p>Absorbed Glass Mat batteries utilize a very fine fiber Boron-Silicate glass mat between the plates.  This mat can take more abuse than gel. 
 <li>AGM batteries are sealed, have special pressure relief valves, and should never be opened. </li>
 <li>Since they require no maintenance, they don't have the costs and inconvenience of regular servicing associated with wet batteries. </li>
 <li>The sulfuric acid cannot spill, even if the battery is severely overcharged or broken, because it is contained in the glass mats</li>
 <li>no chlorine gas can form due to sulfuric acid and salt water mixing. </li>
 <li>AGM batteries can be stored at sub-freezing temperatures as low as -25° to -35°F, as long as they are fully charged prior to storage.</li>
 <li>Most types are recombinant, where Oxygen and Hydrogen recombine inside the battery – this results in efficiency of over 99% and almost no water loss. </li>
 <li>Internal resistance is extremely low, so there is almost no heating of the battery during the charging process. </li>
 <li>AGM batteries have a very low self-discharge – from 1 – 3% per month, so they can sit without charging in storage for much longer periods without damage than wet batteries.</li>
 <li>Since the lead plates are tightly packed and rigidly mounted, AGM batteries withstand shock and vibration. </li>
 <li>AGM batteries excel for high-current, high-power applications and in extremely cold environments. </li>
 <li>Compared with the same size gel battery, AGM's will have a higher amp hour rating and therefore deliver longer run times.</li>
 <li>Classified as non-hazardous, thus their shipping costs are lower.</li>
 <li>They don't have the maintenance costs associated with wet batteries.</li>
 <li>AGM batteries cost 2 to 3 times as much as flooded batteries of the same capacity. </li>
 <li>Where there is adequate ventilation and no leakage concerns, flooded batteries are a better economic choice. </li>
 <li>AGM batteries can be susceptible to thermal runaway during charging because of their recombination reaction. This is another reason why it's so important to match batteries with the appropriate charger and algorithm. </li>
<p>Lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid, a highly corrosive poison that may produce explosive gasses when the battery is recharged. This can hurt you! Therefore, when charging or working with batteries: 
 <li>Make sure they are well ventilated. If accessible, open the machine battery compartment cover or seat and leave it open during the charging process.</li>
 <li>Remove your jewelry, wear safety goggles, protective gloves, and clothing.</li>
 <li>Be careful with your tools so you don't drop a metal tool across exposed battery terminals – the resultant spark may cause an explosion.</li>
 <li>Do not allow battery electrolyte to mix with salt water. Even small quantities of this combination will produce chlorine gas that can kill you. </li>
 <li>Refer to the Charging Do's and Don'ts section for more instructions on charging specific battery types. </li> 
Floor Machine Battery Selection
 <h3> FUNGI </h3>
 <p>Which includes mildew, mold, mushrooms, rust and smut, are any of the major group of saprophytic and parasitic lower plants that lack chlorophyll that release disease causing toxins. The toxins released by this microbiological contaminant include Sperigmatocystin and Alfatorin B1 from Aspergillus which are carcinogenic. Fungus organisms growing in a water reservoir where antigens can be eluded and sprayed into the air as small droplets can be an agent for hypersensitivity diseases such as Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis. Fungus from agricultural sources in outdoor air are the most common cause of contamination indoors. Indoor sources include plants, carbon-based products, building materials, and wood products. The common locations in buildings for the majority of fungi growths include appliance drain pans, grain and meat food products, paper products, carpeting, ceiling tile, air conditioning duct work, plants, and soil used to pot plants. Microbiological contaminants require a food source and relative humidity level above forty percent (40%) to survive in most instances. </p>
 <p><b>Alternaria</b>: Fungus that grows as a parasite on both plants and plant matter. The toxic spores are easily made airborne and considered to be one of the most common causes of health symptoms due to an allergy to airborne spores, and it is an agent for hypersensitivity diseases and as a parasite in infections of lesions of the skin, soft tissues or nails. 
 <p><b>Aspergillus</b>: Common fungus that is found in soil and can be found growing on damp hay, grain, sausage and fruit; a known and documented aero-allergen that is the most common cause of respiratory disease in man and can be an agent for hypersensitivity diseases. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause infections and is found as a parasite in lesions of the skin, soft tissues, or nails.  
 <p><b>Basidiomycetes</b>: A class of parasite fungus that grow mainly on grain plants; the group includes rust, puff balls, smut, mushrooms, and jelly fungi. They are not a major health threat, as they are most commonly found outdoors.  
 <p><b> Botrytis</b>: Fungus that is commonly found in areas of low ventilation with high relative humidity levels and it has a toxic odor like ammonia. It is usually an airborne fungus that looks very similar to yeast.  
 <p><b>Candida Albicans</b>: Airborne yeast that is universally distributed and can be toxic. It is found in soil, feces and nasal passages. Many health experts consider it to be a bacteria, rather than a fungus. 
 <p><b>Cephalosporium</b>: Fungus that is found as a damp soil inhabitant and that is a widespread saprophyte on fruits, leaves and rotting matter.</p>
 <p><b>Chaetomium</b>: Fungus that is usually found in the soil, but grows well on damp paper, fabric, and straw; it elicits an allergenic response in a moderate number of mold sensitive individuals.  
 <p><b>Cladosporium (or Hormodendrum)</b>: A common fungus that is a known and documented aero-allergen which is usually associated with plants, wood products, and leather goods. The spores are easily made airborne and as such are a common cause of respiratory problems. Allergic reactions and can be an agent for hypersensitivity diseases. It is as a parasite in infections of the skin, soft tissues or nails and has been documented in cases of Blastomycosis, Candidiasis, Chromoblastomycosis, Histoplasmosis, Entomophthoramycocis, Phaeophphomycocis and Keratomycosis.</p>
 <p><b>Curvularia</b>: A fungus that is found in the soil of areas with very moist tropical climates. An opportunistic pathogen that is found as a parasite on tropical plants and agricultural crops, including beans, cotton, rice, barley, and corn, plant matter, and birds. The spores are easily made airborne, and can cause respiratory problems for many people.  
 <p><b>Drechslera</b>: a fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen that will typically infect those who are immuno-compromised; various species within this Genus have been documented in cases of phaeohyphomycosis which include cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systemic infections that develop dark-walled dematiaceous septate mycelial elements in host tissues. 
 <p><b>Epicoccum</b>: Airborne fungus commonly found as a soil inhabitant, but is also found in polluted water and carried by insects. It grows on plant leaves, decaying plant materials, uncooked fruit, textiles, paper products, and human skin. The health symptoms are congestion and runny nose that increase in the summer and early fall.  
 <p><b>Fusarium</b>: Common opportunistic pathogen that is a saprophyte of plants. Spores are easily made airborne and found as an infection causing parasite in various lesions of the skin, soft tissues or nails. 
 <p><b>Geotrichum or Gliocladium</b>: Fungi that are similar and commonly found as soil inhabitants and on decomposing plant matter, damp canvas, wood and paper products. An opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of allergenic response for sensitive individuals.  
 <p><b>Helminthosporium</b>: Fungus commonly found on cereal grain plants such as corn, rye, wheat and oats. It causes a majority of the health symptoms due by inhalation of mold spores. 
 <p><b>Humicola</b>: Fungal organism that is a known and documented aero-allergen causing an allergic reaction to hypersensitive individuals even at low exposure concentrations. Chronic exposure at moderate to high airborne concentrations, may also result in the sensitization and the development of allergic disease in previously unaffected individuals.  
 <p><b>Monilia</b>: A soil-borne organism that frequently grows on bread and pastries. Extracts of Monilia produce skin test reactions in a moderate number of mold-sensitive patients.  
 <p><b>Mucor</b>: Phycomycetes that are normally a soil inhabitant, frequently found around barnyards, where it grows on animal waste. It is widespread and elicits allergenic response in a moderate number of mold-sensitive individuals.  
 <p><b>Neuspora</b>: Soil-borne organism which produces a tremendous quantity of spores and that grows on bread and pastries. Extracts product skin test reactions in a moderate number of mold-sensitive individuals. 
 <p><b>Oidiodendron</b>: A known and documented aero-allergen. Oidiodendron may cause an allergic reaction to hypersensitive individuals at low airborne concentrations. Chronic exposure to it at moderate to high airborne concentrations may also result in the sensitization and development of allergic disease in previously unaffected individuals.  
 <p><b>Paecilomyces</b>: Fungus that is a soil inhabitant which grows on damp paper and decaying vegetable matter. It is similar to Penicillium and Aspergillus, causing hypersensitivity and respiratory disease. 
 <p><b>Penicillum</b>: A known and documented aero-allergen which is commonly a soil inhabitant which grows readily on fruits, breads, cheeses, and other foods. This opportunistic pathogen produces mycotoxins that are toxic to humans. It is an agent for hypersensitivity diseases and is a parasite in infections of lesions of the skin, soft tissues or nails. Mutant strains of Penicillium are utilized to produce the antibiotic Penicillin.  
 <p><b>Phoma</b>: Fungus which grows readily on most paper products, such as magazines and books; it grows on some paints and green plants. Widespread in nature and frequently produces a skin rash or other reaction in mold-sensitive individuals.  
 <p><b>Pullularia</b>: Fungus normally found in soil and that grows on decaying vegetation, plants and chalking compounds. It frequently occurs in large numbers, but has a less clinical significance than other family members.  
 <p><b>Rhizopus</b>: A phycomycetes that grows readily on bread, cured meats, and root vegetables indoors. It grows on a variety of plants in nature and is very widespread in distribution. It will elicit an allergenic response in a moderate number of mold sensitive individuals. 
 <p><b>Rhodotorula</b>: Common yeast that is a frequent saprophyte on airborne dust, skin and the macosae. It is a common cause of respiratory problems. 
 <p><b>Scopulariopsis</b>: Fast-growing common fungus which is a saprophyte in nature, it is a causative agent for a nail infection as well as deep-seated granulomatous lesions. 
 <p><b>Stachybotrys sp</b>: Several strains of this fungus may produce a trichothecene mycotoxin- Satratoxin H - which is poisonous by inhalation. The toxins are present on the fungal spores. This is a slow growing fungus on media. The dark colored fungi grows on building material with a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. Areas with relative humidity above 55% and are subject to temperature fluctuations are ideal for toxin production. Individuals with chronic exposure to the toxin produced by this fungus reported cold and flu symptoms, sore throats, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, dermatitis, intermittent local hair loss, and generalized malaise. The toxins produced by this fungus will suppress the immune system affecting the lymphoid tissue and the bone marrow. Animals injected with the toxin from this fungus exhibited the following symptoms: necrosis and hemorrhage within the brain, thymus, spleen, intestine, lung, heart, lymph node, liver, and kidney. The mycotoxin is also reported to be a liver and kidney carcinogen. 
 <p><b>Stemphylium</b>: Fungus found in tropical or high relative humidity areas especially near bodies of water. It grows in the soil of grass and grain lands, forests, polluted water, bark, decaying plant materials, cotton fabric, canvas, damp paper, and books. It is a cause of symptoms due to an allergy to airborne spores and an agent for hypersensitivity diseases. 
 <p><b>Trichoderma</b>: Fungus that is found mainly on decaying wood and is also found on damp cotton and wool, and in damp areas such as basements; it may be the most reacting mold, indicating a sensitizing ability in some people.  
 <p><b>Unocladium</b>: A fungus that is a known and document aero-allergen and an opportunistic pathogen. Exposure to this fungus may cause allergenic reactions, sensitization, Blastomycosis, Candidiasis, Chromo-blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis, Entomophthoramycocis, and Phaeophphomycocis Keratomycosis.  
 <p><b>Verticillium</b>: Soil inhabitant fungus that is similar to Penicillium. It is an agent for hypersensitivity diseases. </p>
 <p>Fungus that did not produce spores in the laboratory culture; without sporulation a formal scientific classification cannot be determined. </p>
 <p>Most environments (air, water, and solid surfaces) contain a variety of bacterial organisms. The type and concentration of bacterial organisms present are influenced by the prevailing conditions. Bacteria are microscopic parasites that are from one to five micrometers in size and that can live on living or nonliving organic (carbon compounds) in the presence or absence of oxygen. Bacteria excrete complex biochemical products that are instrumental in the decay of nonliving matter. A few bacteria are Obligate Pathogens that require a living host, however, most bacteria are Facultative Pathogens that can live on living or nonliving matter.
 <p>Gram staining allows for the separation of bacteria into two groups: Gram positive (+) or Gram negative (-). Cocci are very small sphered, while the rods can be spiral (spirilla) or straight (bacilli). </p>
 <p>References site the comparison of outdoor and indoor concentrations as a means to evaluate indoor microbiological contamination. In 1987, the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) stated that indoor fungal counts should be less than half of the outdoor level for a mechanically ventilated building. Fungal concentrations of 1000 cfu/m3 have historically been reported as being tolerable for an indoor environment (Morey 1984, and Breif and Bernath 1988), however more recent data suggest that the health effects from the inhalation of these spore quantities may be severe enough to recommend considerably lower tolerance limits (Etkin 1994). Indoor airborne samples should contain less than 300 cfu/m3 of the common fungi Cladosporium and less than 150 cfu/m3 of all other mixed species of fungi (Miller 1988). Fungal spore levels in excess of 500 cfu/mc in winter indicate that a building or residence has abnormal sources and/or insufficient ventilation (Reponen 1990).  
<p><b>Contamination levels of non-specific allergenic, pathogenic, or toxic fungal spores </b></p>
 <p>Mold contamination is considered present in a building when the total mold spore concentration per cubic meter is above 10,000. (Baxter, ETS).  
 <p>The National Allergy Bureau considers mold counts in air of 0-900 as low, to 2,500 as moderate, to 25,000 as high, and above 25,000 as very high. At “high” levels most individuals with any sensitivity will experience symptoms. Acceptable levels for individual species vary since species toxicity varies widely as does spore size, weight, and other features which affect risk to building occupants. Eg. Aspergillis/Penicillium in a “clean” residential building study was at a mean of 230, in buildings known to have a moisture or flooding problem it was at 2,235 and in mold contaminated buildings the figure was 36,037. 
Common Molds
 <p>Particulate contamination or simply “dust”. Dust contamination exists in a variety of concentrations, size distribution, and compositions. The characteristics of dust are very dependent upon the dust sources. It is very common to find clothing fiber, dirt and construction materials in most facilities. </p>
 <p>Less common dust sources also exist. Natural events, such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms are some of the largest dust producing events possible. These events introduce a variety of different constituents into the atmosphere that usually remain airborne for considerable periods of time. In addition to natural events, specific industries may generate their own particulate contamination.  </p>
 <p>Particulate contamination can have one or more of the following characteristics:</p>
 <li>Abrasiveness: abrasive particulate may contribute to wear as well as fretting and fretting corrosion. </li>
 <li>Hygroscopic: many particulate contamination compositions have an affinity for water and readily absorb water vapor in the air. If sufficient water vapor is available, the particulate can become wet with water at temperatures above the bulk room dew point.  </li>
 <li>Corrosive Composition: the elemental composition of a particulate contamination may be corrosive to materials within electronics. </li>
 <p><b>Synthetic Fibrous Particulate</b>: Common sources include clothing, carpet fibers, insulated drop in ceiling tiles, insulation. </p>
 <p><b>Common sources</b>: Clothing </p>
 <p><b>Other sources</b>: Carpet fibers, insulated drop in ceiling tiles, and insulation. Because synthetics have a low melting point, they may create a sticky surface to which other particulates will adhere.</p>
 <p><b>Metallic Particulate</b>: Metal dust enters the environment from a variety of sources. Common culprits include worn air conditioning parts, new raised floors, rotor brushes in vacuum cleaner monitors and printer component wear. Another common culprit is the electrician, who might be hardwiring and leave metal debris behind. Metallic particulates conduct electricity. Because they conduct electricity, they have an increased potential for creating short circuits in electronics. They are also magnetically attracted to circuits because of the magnetic fields generated by computer equipment. This particulate usually shows up as rust. </p>
 <p><b>Carbonaceous Particulate</b>: Carbon comes from automobile exhaust, tobacco smoke, printer toners and carbon paper dust. In addition to being conductive, carbon dust is also combustible in sufficient concentrations.</p>
 <p><b>Fibrous Organic Particulates</b>:  These are natural based fibers such as cotton and wool. These fibers usually originate from clothing, but also from incorrect cleaning materials or packaging materials. These fibers absorb moisture and can cause major problems with electronic circuits.</p>
 <p><b>Paper Dust</b>: Paper dust and particulates can cause problems similar to the fibrous particulates. These particulates are attracted to magnetic fields.</p>
 <p><b>Concentrations of any of these particulates in sufficient quantities can be considered a health hazard, although any serious cause for concern would be indicated by a visible manifestation of the contaminant, either airborne observation, or by accumulation on horizontal surfaces.</b></p>
Common Airborne Particulates
<p>E-coli outbreaks. Resistant bacteria. New infectious diseases. People today are confronted with news about the consequences of poor hygiene and the spread of germs on an ongoing basis. And one of the places where hygiene can be improved is the restroom.</p>
<p>While proper hand washing is the most effective means of preventing germ transmission and cross-contamination, numerous studies have shown that large numbers of people don't wash after using the restroom. As a result, someone who is infectious can potentially spread germs to others via restroom fixtures, surfaces, faucets and product dispensers. So it stands to reason that when your staff comes to work, they deserve nothing less than a clean and sanitary restroom. A clean and sanitary restroom lets staff know that management is paying close attention to one of the building's most important areas. Conversely, a dirty or disorderly restroom is not only an eyesore but may heighten fears of germ transmission.</p>
<p>While it can sometimes be difficult to achieve restroom hygiene, particularly in high-traffic locations that require frequent restocking, there are systems on the market that can greatly assist property managers in reaching this goal. Among them: No-touch systems. </p>

<p>A vast array of products are available today that require no-hands operation or contact only with the product, not with dispenser handles or levers. No-touch systems can include everything from sensor-activated faucets and toilet flushing devices to card-entry devices that allow someone to enter the restroom without even touching the door. </p>
 <p>Other types of no-touch products include enclosed bathroom tissue and paper towel systems that enable users to touch only the product they will be using. These enclosed systems reduce the potential for cross-contamination because users touch only the product they use. Since the product is enclosed it is also protected from dirt and moisture.  In addition, towel and tissue products that offer controlled dispensing reduce litter and paper debris, which, while not necessarily unsanitary, conveys the appearance of an unclean restroom environment. </p>
<h3>Don't Forget Soap</h3>
<p>Another important area that can impact restroom hygiene is soap. Even though soap is a small cost component 
of a restroom, it is frequently a prime area of complaint. One study of people's hand washing habits found that nearly 
half the people who did not wash with soap after using the restroom had no choice — there was no soap. This can 
be particularly disconcerting to the person who wants to “do the right thing” but can't. So it's important to offer 
high-capacity or dual cartridge soap systems that last longer and work properly. 
<p>Using a concentrated, clear antibacterial soap can help reduce germs while adding level of comfort for people 
accustomed to using similar products at home. A thicker, concentrated soap provides a rich feel, adding to an overall 
impression of quality that can improve perceptions of the restroom. And, here too, no-touch systems can be used to 
help prevent the spread of germs via cross-contamination. 
<h3>Cleaning Systems</h3>
<p>As restroom products manufacturers have moved to touchless products and systems, so, too, have manufacturers of cleaning systems. Some systems provide on-demand sanitizing and cleaning of fixtures based upon flushing. There are also no-touch cleaning products that enable housekeeping professionals to clean without touching any surface in the restroom with their hands. These systems are also simple to operate as they consist primarily of electrical pressurized spraying systems mounted on a cart with a spray wand. In addition to physical cleanliness, the systems help restrooms look and smell fresh and clean. </p>
<p>With these and other tools it is easier than ever before to create a hygienic, sanitary restroom environment for your staff. When you consider how much time the average person spends in the restroom — more than three workdays a year — doing anything less just doesn't make sense.</p>
Benefits Of No-touch Systems
Abrasion:  The  wearing  away  or  cleaning  by  friction. Abrasion can also relate to the wearing away of a floor 
finish film by friction.

Abrasive: A product that works by abrasion. Products such as cleaners, polishes, and pads may contain an abrasive.

Acid: A chemical substance with pH less than 7 that reacts with and neutralizes an alkali.

Acidity: A measure of the strength of an acid. See pH and Alkalinity. 

Acrylic: Type of polymer used in floor finishes. Also, a man: made synthetic fiber used in spun yarn to resemble wool in carpet
Active Ingredients: The ingredients in a product that are specifically designed to achieve the product performance          objectives
Acute Toxicity: The short-term toxicity of a product in a single dose.Can be divided into oral, cutaneous, and respiratory toxicities. 
Adhesion: A necessary characteristic of a floor finish, which causes it to bond to the floor rather than peel, flake or powder. 
Adsorption:  Adsorption  is  a  surface  phenomenon that  some  products  exhibit,  whereby  they  form  a 
physicochemical  bond  with  substances.  Not  to  be confused with absorption.

Aerobic  Bacteria: Bacteria  that requires oxygen. Pseudomonas is an example.

Aerosol  Spray:  A  means  of  atomizing  liquids  by propelling them from a pressurized container by a soluble gas

Air Pollution Potential: Products may contain volatile organic  compounds  (VOC).  When  these  products  are used, the VOCs may escape to the atmosphere and react to form smog. Smog and other atmospheric pollutants have been shown  to cause irritation of the eyes, nose, 

Acute Effect: Adverse effect on a human or animal that has  severe  symptoms  developing  rapidly  and  coming 
Quick to crisis. See also CHRONIC, throat, lungs, and cause asthma attacks. Many state and local authorities have restrictions on the use of VOCs.  This issue can also be a problem with indoor air from chemicals including cleaning products.
Janitorial Term Glossary
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 <h2>Choosing the Right Floor Buffing Pads and Floor Scrubber Pads</h2>
 <p>Floor care machines are a janitor’s best friend. Used for everything from polishing to stripping, these machines are responsible for keeping floors looking like new and increasing the safety of any facility. That’s why it is absolutely vital to choose the right floor buffing pads and floor scrubber pads for the job. With so many options available today, it can be difficult to know which option is best for your needs, but this guide will help you choose the ideal pads for your task.</p>
 <h3>Floor Scrubber Pads and Colors</h3>
 <p>Floor scrubber and floor buffing pads come in different colors which indicate the applications for which they are best suited. Darker shades indicate increasing aggressiveness. Tan and polishing are most often used for polishing, red is the shade for spray buffing, blue is appropriate for burnishing and cleaning, green is ideal for scrubbing, brown is best for dry scrubbing and black is ideal for stripping.</p>
 <h3>Other Considerations when Choosing Floor Pads</h3>
 <p>In addition to matching the task at hand, the floor buffing pads and floor scrubber pads you choose should also be appropriate for the type of floor finish being treated and the machine being used.</p>
 <p>Conventional 175- to 300-rpm machines do well with basic pads, but newer equipment that runs at higher speeds may require high-speed buffing and burnishing pads. These pads typically come in pastel shades to set them apart from other, more aggressive pads. The lighter colors also reduce the risk of transfer at higher speeds.</p>
 <p>Floor finish must also be considered when choosing floor pads. Softer surfaces require smoother pads, while harder surfaces require rougher pads. For example, diamond floor pads are appropriate for concrete floor use but would not do well on laminate floors.</p>
 <p>It’s also important to choose floor pads that enhance the labor dollar and work faster and longer in creating your desired result – cleaner, shinier floors. Our floor pads are made to the highest end of the industry standard, and every product in our inventory is manufactured to out-perform low quality, inferior products that may end up costing you more in the long run.</p>
 <p>It’s also important to choose floor pads that enhance the labor dollar and work faster and longer in creating your desired result – cleaner, shinier floors. Our floor pads are made to the highest end of the industry standard, and every product in our inventory is manufactured to out-perform low quality, inferior products that may end up costing you more in the long run.</p>
 <img src="http://www.pennsylvaniapaper.com/images/Floor-Pad-Types.jpg" alt="HTML5 Icon">
Floor Pad Selection
<h3>PLASTIC GAUGE THICKNESS CHART</h3><img src="http://www.pennsylvaniapaper.com/images/gauge-chart.png" alt="HTML5 Icon">
Measurements Conversion Chart
<h3>Chemical Dilution Chart</h3><img src="http://www.pennsylvaniapaper.com/images/dilution-chart.jpg" alt="HTML5 Icon">
Chemicals Dilution Chart
<p>Printable Guide <a style="background-image: url(http://wwwimages.adobe.com/content/dam/acom/en/legal/images/badges/Adobe_PDF_file_icon_32x32.png); background-position: center left; background-repeat: no-repeat; padding-left: 35px; height: 35px; height: 35px; padding-top: 10px" href= "http://pennsylvaniapaper.com/docs/Can-Liners-101.pdf"> Can Liners 101 </a></p> 
<h2>What Size Can Liner Do I Need for My Trash Can</h2>
 <p>Commercial can liner sizes are expressed in two numbers e.g. 38” x 58” . The first number is the size of the opening of the liner and the second number is the height of the liner. To
find the correct size liner, first measure the can's circumference then measure its height. </p>
<p>Each container should have a gallon capacity, or size
printed on it. Just match the picture to your receptacle and
it will tell you which size trash bag you need.</p>
<img src="http://www.pennsylvaniapaper.com/images/containers-specs-300x197.png" alt="HTML5 Icon" style="width:300px;height:197px;">
<p><b>Bag Width: </b>To calculate the proper width of the trash can liner for
your container, simply divide the circumference of your
container by 2.</p> 
<p><b>Square Container Circumference: </b>Circumference = sum of all four sides added together.</p> 
<p><b>Round Container Circumference: </b>Circumference = diameter multiplied by 3.14. </p> 
<p><b>Bag length: </b>(round & square containers) add the height of the
container, plus 4-5 inches for overhang. </p> 
<h2>Why Gauge Isn't Always Important?</h2>
<table style=" border: 1px solid black; max-width: 500px;">
 <tr style=" border: 1px solid black;">
  <th>General Industral Trength Rating</th>
  <th>Linear Low Density Mil Thickness Range</th>
  <th>Old Low Density Strength Rating</th>
 <tr style=" border: 1px solid black;">
  <td>Regular (R)</td>
  <td>.35 to .50</td>
 <tr style=" border: 1px solid black;">
  <td>Medium (M)</td>
  <td>.45 to .75</td>
 <tr style=" border: 1px solid black;">
  <td>Heavy (H)</td>
  <td>.60 to 1.0</td>
  <td>Heavy Plus (H+)</td>
  <td>.74 to 1.3</td>
  <td>Extra Heavy</td>
  <td>.90 to 1.5</td>
  <td>Extra Extra Heavy</td>
  <td>1.3 to 2.0</td>
<p>Film thickness is no longer a satisfactory standard for judging overall strength. The development of improved LLDPE resin in the liner industry has completely changed the standard method for selecting the correct can liners. These materials have allowed manufacturers to produce thinner, lighter trash bags which are stronger and more durable than the thicker bags previously made from low density resin. This is why gauge is no longer an effective way to determine liner strength. Instead of stating actual thickness, it is now generally accepted to use terminology such as "Light", "Medium", "Heavy", and "Extra Heavy".</p>
<p>Each manufacturer has its own blend formulations, so the proportions of these materials vary from one producer to another. The best way to determine the correct liner is to actually test some suggested samples. At Pitt Plastics, we have our own testing laboratory where we can test our liners or those of another manufacturer and provide you with the test results.</p>
<p>It's important to know a little bit about what can liners are actually made of, and how thicknesses are measured. That way you can determine which of the polyethylene resins and liner gauges will work best for your particular application.</p>
<p><b>Resin</b>- The basic raw material from which can liners are made. There are 3 types of resins: Low Density, Linear Low Density and High Density Polyethylene.</p>
<p><b>Linear Low Density Polyethylene</b> - This resin is highly puncture and tear resistant. These properties make this the best choice for applications where additional strength and stretch are required. Works well for waste with sharp or jagged edges.
<p><b>-High Density Polyethylene</b>- Liners made from this resin are generally available in lower gauges, and are more temperature resistant.</p>
<p><b>Low Density Polyethylene</b>- An older resin still used mainly in lower end utility liners. It has largely been replaced by Linear Low Density Polyethylene. Pitt Plastics does not use this resin in any of our can liners!</p>
<p><b>Post</b>- Consumer and Post-Industrial Polyethylene- This is made from recycled post-consumer plastics such as milk jugs and industrial scraps. These are reprocessed and blended with other types of resins to produce new high quality liners.</p>
<p><b>Gauge</b>- A term used to describe the thickness of a liner. Low density liners are measured in mils, while High Density liners are generally measured in microns.</p>
<p><b>Mil</b>- Measurement based on one hundred thousandths of an inch (.000). For example, a .55 mil bag would be 55 thousandths of an inch thick. Common low density liners range from .37 to 1.8 mil in thickness.</p>
Everything About Can Liners
  <H2>7 Reasons You Need Entrance Mats at Every Door</H2>
  <P>Hiring professional cleaners to ensure that your facility stays clean is a smart move, but you also need to know various ways in which you can help maintain the cleanliness in your establishment. This is where entrance mats come in. These mats (also known as walk off mats) come in many different shapes and sizes. If you want your building to stay clean, you need to ensure that there’s an entrance mat at every door.</P>
  <H3>Advantages of using Entrance Mats</H3>
  <P>1)   You can’t ask people to take off their shoes.</P>
  <P>According to studies by ISSA (the Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association), about <b>80% of all the contaminants affecting any facility comes from the shoes</b> of people in the building. Now you can’t exactly ask your visitors to take off their shoes before they go in any room of the building. By having entrance mats at every door, you ensure that they at least have a way to wipe their shoes before entering and/or walk off some of the debris.</P>
  <p>2)   Entrance mats guard your establishment from added dust and mud.</p>
  <p>You may not be able to control what kind of dust and mud goes in but having an entrance mat by the door is a way to guard it from the unnecessary. Say for instance the person came from outside where it’s extra dusty. Having an entrance mat allows that person to remove some of that excess dust so that it won’t go inside your building.</p>
  <p>3)   You don’t have to worry about rain.</p>
  <p>Rain is a nightmare for those trying to keep a certain area clean, because with rain comes wet shoes and muddy floors. If you have an entrance mat welcoming each guest at every doorway, you don’t have to worry about rain and getting your floors all muddy. They can simply wipe their shoes clean and dry before entering.</p>
  <p>4)   It can be useful and decorative at the same time.</p>
  <p>What some people forget is that doormats don’t have to be plain and ugly. You can be as decorative as you want to be, matching the entrance mat with the decors of your establishment or office or giving your visitors a sneak peek of what they can expect inside. You can even use it as a branding tool by having your logo or company name imprinted on the mat.</p>
  <p>5)   It’s a way to minimize slip hazards.</p>
  <p>According to the National Floor Safety Institute in this paper, “more than 3 million food service employees and over 1 million guests are injured annually as a result of restaurant slips and falls.” Clearly, slipping is a danger that’s quite common. With an entrance mat at every doorstep however, you can easily minimize the risk of people slipping as they navigate their way into your building.</p>
  <p>6)   You can prevent floor damage.</p>
  <p>With well-placed entrance mats, you can also prevent interior floor damage by protecting your floor surfaces. It’s not just the people that you protect from accidents, you protect your facility as well.</p>
  <p>7)   It can help you with bacteria regulation.</p>
  <p>Some doormats can actually be infused with microbe-killing powers that can help you with bacteria regulation. So not only do you keep your rooms clean as far as your eyes can see, you also keep them clean even on a microorganism level.</p>
Why You Need Enterance Mats?
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